Sport training activities

Aerobic and anaerobic energy systems in sports

Zone of extensive aerobic training and regeneration zone

       In order to become fully familiar with our capabilities during sports trainings it is necessary to understand physiological and morphological changes in our body. We will have an insight into the kind of changes happening in our body and teach you about the ways of controlling them. This will turn our trainings into pleasure and physical efforts into ways of becoming healthier and more comfortable with ourselves.

      We distinguish between aerobic and anaerobic energy systems and we will be dealing with the recreation zones of training consisting of aerobic training and up to the anaerobic threshold.

We have already explained the basic concepts in our previous articles, but we will now extend our analysis and explain the consequences of the occurrence of salt lactic acid -lactate in muscles and blood during sports activities. The following contributes to the fact as to how important lactates are in sports.

      The anaerobic threshold is reached when the intensity of athletes’ activity is as such as to bring the production of lactate in muscles to a critical value.

      In order to relieve muscles of lactate the training zone of regeneration is used. The zone of relaxation and regeneration is the zone of the least burdening training which helps athletes recover after a demanding and difficult training since it is the fastest way of diluting the accumulated lactic acid (lactate) under this light load, with simultaneous resynthesis of anaerobic phosphagen capacity. The intensity varies individually from one person to another and it is below the anaerobic threshold (around 40-50% VO2max).

      For better understanding of the term „lactate” and its importance we give the following comparative example:

Unlike recreational athletes, active athletes have special methods of controlling lactate in muscles. That is, they use lactate to improve and develop their anaerobic capacities. In order to enhance buffer capacity of fast muscle fibres, it takes a long-term presence of a very high content of lactate in muscles and blood during training. This is a result of a high activity of glycolytic processes in fast muscle fibres. It means that the amount of lactate during exercise increases constantly and each subsequent repetition, regardless of rest, begins at a higher level of acidosis. There is an increase of the anaerobic threshold. For this reason, the training that develops anaerobic capacity requires huge motivation. These trainings require an expert team of trainers because the probability of overtraining and injuries is increased.


  * Buffers are solutions with a certain pH value. The quantity of a strong acid or base that can be added to a buffer without significantly changing its pH value depends of the buffer capacity.


  ** Acidosis (Acid-base balance) is the process of maintaining a certain pH value. The human body is extremely sensitive to changes of the pH value, and therefore it has powerful mechanisms of preserving the pH value in a narrow range.


     We conclude the following: the programming of sports training depends on the importance of energy systems in a particular sport. In order to estimate the amount of and the importance of aerobic and anaerobic energy system in any sport, it is necessary to consider all factors of a specific sport discipline. By varying the three basic elements of training effort (frequency, duration and intensity) we can satisfy each of the requirements that are placed in front of the athletes and thus cause a specific body adaptation to a certain type of effort.



Anaerobic energy threshold

Individual sports activities